Monday, May 25, 2020
Sample details Pages: 7 Words: 2098 Downloads: 6 Date added: 2018/12/30 Category History Essay Type Research paper Level High school Did you like this example? Introduction Peter and Petrine culture represent a radical break with Russias past because Peter the great inherited an administration that had a lot of serious challenges. Nonetheless, Peter and Petrine being performers, planned to address some issues that faced the Russians. Peter succeeded in most areas but also at the other end failed to achieve some problems. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Peter and Petrine Contribution to Russia" essay for you Create order Like, most leaders, Peter faced opposition from other leaders. Rejection from opposition never stopped Peter from accomplishing his goal. Instead, it motivated him to work even harder. Peter aimed at modernizing and transforming Russia for the better. The transformation was based on bringing basics of European culture in Russia (Werb, 25). Peters and Petrines contributions to Russias history Peters rule was defined by battles with Sweden and the Ottoman. Afterward, the consecutive defeat from enemies, which were reminiscent of military losses brought about by his reign. This caused Peter to form a navy and transform the military, which could be a great step in winning the battle. These reforms included the following, establishment of the center of higher learning that replaced prikazy and created a Senate to manage government policies. Peter started a newspaper that was used to keep the public updated on matters concerning administration activities (Vladiv-Glover, 2). For instance, mapping all Russia and its resources to ensure control and extraction. Women attained some freedom under Petrine reign. Introduction of foreign influences to Russians for example, shaving of beards and initiation of new fashion (Rollberg, 335). Development of countrys offensive and defensive capabilities by creating another navy and improving the existing army. Trade was developed due to t he expansion of Russian territory. Peter ensured education was improved and Russians could get access to it. Peter also promoted the Russian culture by ensuring he changed the traditional ways of doing things. These reforms were achieved through several initiatives: modest systems for military, Russians marine armies and modernized the military to fit the western culture (Rollberg, 335). Petrine also ensured the administration was streamlined and mobilized Russias economy and social resource. Peter knew that the economy of Russia was in need of reform and this prompted him to travel to different developed countries in a bid to get better ways to develop his home country (Vladiv-Glover, 2). During those trips, Peter was able to learn so much. Peter was able to learn how to improve the economy, and this could help the Russians. Peter knew that if the country economy was stable, the Russians could not travel to other counties in search of job opportunities in countries where the economy was strengthened. Due to this reason, Peter thought to apply the western mercantilism to stimulate agriculture, industries, and commerce. During that time most industries were dominated by the state. Those enterprises were the source of capital, raw material, labor and also the purchaser of the final product (Zitser, 101). This was not enough to support the people of Russians so peter established factories that were producing a wealth of materials and products. Through the development of indu stries, Peter opened job opportunities. Hence Russians had no reason traveling to other countries, therefore, disagreeing with Klyuchevsky that peter ambitions represented a radical change to Russia. Education was so essential to Peter that he could go against any odd. Education was only meant for the upper-class people, but Peter made it accessible to all people regardless of the class level. The general public found it so difficult to express themselves, and they were often left disappointed since they could not afford to get an education to improve their lives and thus continued to suffer in silence. The Russians only expressed themselves through painting. Peter wanted a modern army and navy that could be able to fit the evolving world. Peter travels had made him see the importance of education. For example, the knowledge of engineering that the naval officers needed to navigate. Petrine ensured that education reforms were continued during his reign (Rollberg, 335). Petrine had seen the importance of education introduced by Peter. For instance, Lomonosov was one among many people who were able to prosper under peter reforms. Additionally, Peters love for learning started since as a young boy, and his curiosity made him attain new knowledge and even started some schools, for instance, school of medicine, school of science and school of engineering .peter the great sponsored schools on secular lines where children, soldiers, and officers were admitted. Peter even permitted Russians to go abroad in search education. Due to lack of scientist in Russia, the schools had to be operated by foreigners (Werb, 25). This was one of the main reasons why Peter wanted Russians to be trained since developing foreigners was not his dream, but instead, he believed on Russians. Many young good men were advised to learn and experience the feeling of western culture. Peter encouraged Russians youth to learn the new technologies and economic theories so that they can be able to compete with the changing world. Broadening of knowledge was not a threat to peter, but instead, it was observed as a great benefit to Russias develop ment (Zitser, 101). During the reign of Petrine, the members of administration exerted pressure on the government and private entrepreneurs to continue the policies of skills training that was beneficial to the Russians. Similarly, when Peter inherited the throne, the Russia was under-developed compared to successful countries. This was due to Russian nature of opposing modernization. Peter carried the reform that affected industry, economy, and administration. The reformation was aimed at bridging the gap between the western countries and Russia (Rollberg, 335). The church was at the heart of peter reforms. Russian was believed to be pagans due to their traditional ways. The high level of illiteracy in Russia made it even delicate in handling agriculture activities like handling machines used for farming. Petrine ensured that he introduced other farming methods and Russians were educated and could be able to operate the machinery (Vladiv-Glover, 2). This could help the Russians to increase their produce hence solving the issue of drought that was a big problem. Churches were a very wealthy institution that owned huge amounts swathes of land enough to rival the authority of the Russias. The churches were managed by Prikaz who paid monks salaries and received all monastic revenues (Werb, 25). That revenue helped the Russias in developing the growth of industries and economy.so peter thought controlling churches could help in getting revenues to at least boost their economy. Peter challenged Russian values with his reform, the traditionalist in specific and fashion which was opposed by orthodox. They believed that reform were threats to their religious beliefs and practices. Some of these practices included the shaving of beards by men. (Zitser, 101) These reforms applied uniformly across the Russians but the upper classes people were affected most. In this case, the upper-class people were looked upon by lower class for example in fashion. Peter believed that if the upper-class adopt the new fashion, it will create a great impact on the lower class people. Peter intention was to abolish the Russians tradition way of living that was outdated and could not fit in the evolving world ( Rollberg,335). The young generation embraced new fashion very well. This helped them in facing other people from different countries who dont understand Russians traditions. The societal reforms which were considered offensive were planned to reform fashion and interaction of people among the genders in open places. Before Peter, boys and girls were prohibited from interacting except with an elderly intervention. This reform helped the Russians widely since it created a breakthrough for even foreigners to travel to Russia to invest and felt the Russians had developed both economically and socially. Peter was so much concerned on how foreigners viewed the Russians (Werb, 25).peter adored the Russians women hence introducing laws and legislation that protected the women. In these laws women had a right to dissolve the forced marriage as it was not the case before Peter reform. For instance, peter marriage to Evdokiia was not according to peters choice, but his family arranged it against his desires. Petrine ensured that men who abused womens dowry were taken to court and charged. Peter rejuvenated Russian values and painting which created interest in education where St. Petersburg was the main artistic center. Peter introduced the system Table of Ranks that replaced the boyars. The highest position in Russian was hereditary. Table of Ranks being introduced, allowed everyone to work their way up to administrative hierarchy with sufficient hard work and skills. Regardless when peter reforms were not introduced, where commoner people were not allowed to work in the bureaucratic pyramid (Werb, 25). This has been a big success to Russians. Peter introduction of governing state that replaced boyar council. The Senate coordinated various government organs and also supervised the collection and expenditure of revenue. According to the research, this became the best institution, especially in law administration (Vladiv-Glover, 2). Peter organized the army according to western standards. Before Peter, the soldiers relied on the militia of the streltsy and the Russian corps. Streltsy was involved in several rebellions against peter since the group was abolished. Peter was very fair in selecting the o fficers from nobility, he also enlisted peasant and townspeople into the other ranks hence ensuring fairness at all levers (Vladiv-Glover, 2). Weapons were invented according to the latest standards and officers were required to make their men proficient in combat from the skill they got from schools introduced by Peter. Modernizing the army made Russia a naval power and its was able to strengthen its position. Petrine main reasons for reforms was to win the war (Rollberg, 335). Peter helped to form a grand alliance that comprised of Russians, Denmark, and Saxony against the Swedish Empire leading to the big Northern war the war lasted for twenty-one years. After a successful northern war, the Russia become a dominant power in Europe. Through diplomacy and skillful statesmanship, Peter was able to expand the Russia territory and make it a major European power. Russia was able to extend their boundaries since it gained access to eastern shores of the Baltic after the war. This was Peter greatest success, and this led to the growth of the economy of Russia. This was all acquired through peters travel abroad and his curiosity to European culture (Werb, 25).peter also gave Russians a right to elect municipalities of their choice since he released that the townspeople had no power to select leaders. Russians believed leaders were elected from upper classes assumption that Peter changed. This reform was furthered by the establishment of the Head of Magistrate that controlled the distribution of finances and tax collection. Conclusion Peter and Petrine culture represent a radical break with Russias past because Peter and Petrine inspirations were often connected to war and the consolidation of their autocratic rule. Peter used important measures in implementing some of his reforms. Nevertheless, peter changes on education still had a larger implication (Zitser, 101). Peter wanted to modify ingrained behaviors, as well as to run Russia more competently to make Russia modern and part of western countries. The action of building and promoting learning in Russia could create a lot of impact on Russians in term of their economy. Peter and Petrine actions within their country were innovative and significant and ensured fairness at all times. Education was introduced to Russians to improve growth and economy. The growth was felt in many areas like in society and soldiers, where the Russians were to express themselves and handle farming machinery and other technologies (Werb, 25). Therefore Peter and Petrine made positive reforms to Russia since they believed in making their country the best. Nevertheless, their transformations were achieved although they were followed by many challenges, for example, resistance from orthodox who believed they wanted to challenge their religious belief. They also faced mockery and civil disobedience more so from men as they were forced to shave their beard. Their reforms helped Russia in expanding their territory, improve economy and culture (Zitser, 101). Russian culture was too traditional and outdated hence peter reforms modernized it to fit in the western countries. This was enough evidence that Peter and Petrine reforms were beneficial to the Russians. References Rollberg, Peter. Peter the great, statism, and axiological continuity in contemporary Russian television. Demokratizatsiya 22.2 (2014): 335. Vladiv-Glover, Slobodanka. Introduction: Socialist Realism as Genealogy of an Era. Transcultural Studies 9.1 (2013): 1-3. Werb, Daniel, et al. A socio-structural approach to preventing injection drug use initiation: rationale for the PRIMER study. Harm reduction journal 13.1 (2016): 25. Zitser, Ernest. Tour de Force: Irina and Dmitrii Guzevichs Analytical Bibliography of Tsar Peters Grand Embassy to Europe. E-Journal of Eighteenth-Century Russian Studies 1 (2013): 99-106.
Thursday, May 14, 2020
Vitor Franca Mr. Michael Copeland IEP Writing Skills 7 May 2013 The Eight Michael Fred Phelps was born in 1985 and grew up in Baltimore. He decided to start swimming when his two sisters made their first attempt in the US Olympic trials. At first, he was afraid of putting his head under the water, but years passed and he was no longer scared by the water. When he decided to try his first swim meet, it was the moment he made his first decision, among many others, which he would make to achieve eight gold medals years later. At the age of eleven, his mother took him to the see Bob Bowman, his future coach. Bob laid his eyes on Phelps and predicted Michael Phelps would be an Olympic swimmer by 2000. The decision to join a swimÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦I wanted my record to stand, Phelps said afterwards. I wanted the pool record to stand just because that was my first world record(Michael Phelps). He set the old record of 1:54.92 as a 15-year-old in 2001, qualifying for that years FINA World Aquatics Championship. (Litsky) This is kind of where everything started going, Phelps said. This is a great pool for me (Michael Phelps). It was the third win for Phelps at the three-day meet, his last before the U.S. Olympic Trials that begin June 25 in Omaha. On Friday, he also placed first in the 100 fly. On Saturday, he won the exhausting 400 individual medley. Over the weekend I hadnt had that great of swims, Phelps said. Hopefully, going into trials we can fix that and be ready like this every day (Michael Phelps). Phelps did not compete in the 200 individual medley, saying that he wanted to focus on the butterfly on his last day before returning to training in Colorado Springs. Colorado Springs was a rewarding training that Phelps enjoyed by working on all the details he needed to leave his record behind. The exception was that this one was his own, so to succeed, he just needed to do everything Mr. Bowman was saying. Three months later, Phelps was at his first world championship. He planned alongside Bob Bowman to touch the wall ahead of his personal best. That decision made him sign his firstShow MoreRelatedMichael Phelps1153 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"I deliberately set very high goals for myselfÃ¢â¬ ¦why not? No limitsÃ¢â¬ (Phelps 14). Michael Phelps is a name that will always be associated with the word swimming. He made the sport well-known by his eight medal wins at the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games, and is the most decorated Olympian in the world. He had been swimming since he was seven years old, and competed at only fifteen years old in his first Olympic Games. Michael Phelps has affected the world for good by bringing honor to the United StatesRead MoreMichael Phelps : U.s Pride1566 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesMichael Phelps: U.S Pride in Swimming Luiz Gustavo Machado Gulliver Schools Sport is important for mankind for the benefits it brings in terms of entertainment and physical activity. It is valued in the world and particularly in the United States. One of the most famous sports is swimming, not only because it is interesting to watch, but also because swimming is a precious ability of humanity. Swimming is one of the sports that are present in the Olympics Games, which is the largest and most relevantRead MoreEssay on Biography of Michael Phelps891 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesthink Michael Phelps is a credible person when it comes to swimming. He was very successful though his credibility took a hit when he was pictured holding a marijuana pipe (Crouse). Phelps was born to his parents, Fred and Debbie, on June 30, 1985 (JockBio: Michael Phelps Biography). He has two sisters, Whitney and Hilary (JackBio: Michael Phelps Biography). Both of them took up swimming when they were young and Michael followed in their footsteps (JackBio: Michael Phelps Biography). Phelps startedRead MoreIs Michael Phelps A Best Athlete?868 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageswith the law. In these cases, its even worse when you are celebrity or an athlete that everyone around the world knows you. The person that I want to write about is Michael Phelps. He is known for winning 22 medals in three Olympiads. He holds the all-time records for Olympic gold medials. In winning 8 gold medials in 2008 BeijingÃ¢â¬â¢s Phelps took the record away from his fellow American swimmer Mark Spitz for the most first-place finishes at any single Olympic Games. Five of those victories were in individualRead MoreThe Legacy Of The Baltimore Bullet Essay1671 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesCalvin Nguyen Capps English IV AP 5th 11 Dec 2016 The Legacy of the Baltimore Bullet Known as the Baltimore Bullet or Flying Fish (Olympics), Michael Phelps is also known as an Olympian, writer, philanthropist, and one who has had legal problems; identities that come together in an athlete that has left a legacy that may never be surpassed. Showing dominance extending from the beginning of his career to the very end, he is the greatest athlete that the swimming world, and perhaps even the entireRead MoreExploring The Art Of Swim Team1276 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Diving 101 Diving is easy, once you do it a couple of times. In competitive swimming, a good dive off the starting block is completely necessary to winning races and improving your times. If you watch any swimming star, such as Michael Phelps, you will notice that they all have a great dive that gets them far out into the pool in very little time. That of course is the goal of your dive. First, Step onto the starting block. Start by placing one of your feet on front so the toes ofRead MoreBiography of Mark Spitz 607 Words Ã |Ã 2 Pagestechnological advancements, training, and of course, Michael Phelps, some would say that itÃ¢â¬â¢s time for SpitzÃ¢â¬â¢s legend to fade away. But the fact still remains, not only did Mark Spitz swim with a mustache, body hair, in a tiny speedo, without a cap or goggles, he still blew away the competition. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s difficult to compare 1972Ã¢â¬â¢s true amateur Mark Spitz in tiny Speedo bikini to 2008Ã¢â¬â¢s high-tech, unitard wearing Michael Phel ps. It is true that Phelps went on to break SpitzÃ¢â¬â¢s long held record by earningRead MoreOlympic Sports History824 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesthe U.S swam the 200m backstroke in 1.51 in 2009 and the 50m backstroke in 2017. Ippei Watanabe of Japan swam the 200m breaststroke in 2.06 . Rafael Ramos of Spain swam the 50m 20.95 in 2009. Michael Phelps of the U.S swam the 100m butterfly in 49.82 as well as the 200 fly in 1.51 both in 2009. Michael Phelps also swam the 400 IM in 2009 in 4:03. As for women, Ranomi Kromowidjojo, from the Netherlands swam the 50m freestyle in 24.05 in 2012. Simone Manuel, from the U.S, and Penny Oleksiak from CanadaRead MoreSwimming At The Swimming Pool1071 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesout of it. I politely decline their offer--or as politely an upset seven-old could--and went back to my own business in the pool. They must have really wanted me to swim because that started showing me some short clips of Olympic Swimmers like, Michael Phelps and Nathan Adrian. I hav e to say, watching those videos were really convincing; the following week we went to the country club to sign up for the team. I learned during that first year that swimming was nothing like I had expected it to be, itRead MoreSpeedo Innovation5178 Words Ã |Ã 21 Pagesbrand s heritage derives from its leadership in competitive swimming, where more Olympic Gold Medals have been won in Speedo than any other brand. World Champion Michael Phelps is among the elite athletes wearing Speedo; Phelps wore Speedo as he made history in Beijing, winning eight gold medals and rewriting the record books. Phelps belief in Speedo s history of innovation and the Speedo Aqualab is shared by fellow Team Speedo stars Natalie Coughlin, Ryan Lochte and Katie Hoff. Building on
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The case study stated above depicts a disease called Tay Sachs disease. This rare inherited disease involves a progressive destroying of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord. The most common form of Tay Sachs disease becomes apparent in infancy (Goldberg). The major symptoms of this disease are lipid accumulation in brain cells, mental deficiencies, blindness, and death in childhood. Tay Sachs is commonly found in Jews from central Europe and there is a 1 in 3500 chance of it occurring. Other places where the mutations are common are in certain French-Canadian communities of Quebec, the Old Order Amish community in Pennsylvania, and the Cajun population of Louisiana (Goldberg). The general prognosis is that even with the best of care,Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Nitrogenous bases can either be A, G, C, or T. These letters are significant because when they are put into certain orders, form different instructions and form different sets of rules. A stands for adenine, G stands fo r guanine, C stands for cytosine, and T stands for thymine. All of these nucleotides make up the double helix that is the main structure of DNA. A mutation is a natural process that changes and substitutes a DNAÃ¢â¬â¢s sequence of codons and bases. The order of the codons is crucial because, as stated above, directly relate to the instructions that are written for specific parts of the human. The most common form of a mutation is a single base being substituted for another. But mutations are not always negative. Mutation generates new variations that can give an individual a survival advantage (Health Sciences). A healthy gene is different from a mutated gene because a healthy gene has information that fits in the specific human body. A mutated gene is a gene that has information that is distorted, and will contribute differently during the process if creating a human. As an example, during protein synthesis, there can be point mutations, which leads to deformed red blood cells in sickle cell disease. In Tay Sachs disease, the mutated gene leads to raised toxic levels in the spinal cord and the brain (Health Sciences). Overall, the idea of the structure of DNA and the idea of mutations help to explain genetic disorders because both are involved in making
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Question: Describe about the Urban Ecology for Social Living Organism. Answer: What is urban ecology and which school of sociology developed it? Study of the Urban Ecology helps to understand the connection between the social and physical dimension. The urban sociology was formulated at the University of Chicago by a man by the name Robert Ezra. Throughout his career at the University, he led a group of dedicated sociologists in the direct and systematic observation. From the research, they understood that a city was a highly ordered mosaic different regions either the industrial districts ethnic communities, with the various ethnic communities. The city has operations of like of social living organism, which is maintained and attracts people to the city. As the towns grow gradually, it shows that individuals with specific residential have some things in common, three factors can be able to explain the variation which are the family pattern, social classes, and race/ ethnicity. What are Glocks five dimensions of religiosity? Religiosity measures the significance of ones religious attributes in his life. This is according to the five distinct Charles Glock dimensions which include experimental religiosity which relates to personal emotional ties to the faith. The second dimension is the conventional approach which reflects the frequency of performing ritual activities such as attending prayer and church. We also have the ideological religiosity that contemplates the religious ethos and its intensity of an individual. Then we have another component, that is consequential religiosity that look on the matter of influence level of religiosity on the daily activities of a person. Lastly, we have the intellectual religiosity that concerns on the depth of knowledge for any historic contents and principles of a specific religion. How do sociologists distinguish between the terms sex and gender? Gender denotes determination of social attributes and conceptional difference of hierarchies between male and female. Gender influences various aspects of social life by shaping our thinking and leaving impact on our way of interactions both in personal and professional ground. Whereas sex may be male or female unlike the gender that differntiates class like feminine, masculine etc. Sociologists have termed sex such as biological nature. What are the differences between heterosexism and homophobia? Indigenous Politics Heterosexism is an ideology that discriminates or prejudice against homosexuals on the assumption that it is an inferior a whole group of fellow citizens. Heterosexuality is the normal sexual orientation is a violation of the human rights, and this increasingly challenges the society. Homophobia is the discrimination against the homosexuals. People are intolerant of homosexuals are likely to be more authoritarian more dogmatic. Recently the human rights activists have come to recognize the problem in the homophobia cases. What is the difference between the terms ethnicity and race? Ethnicity refers to basic shared historical and cultural heritage. In most cases, people term ethnicity and race interchangeably but in the right language race is a kind of flurry and controversial topic which refers to the section of individuals who share similar biological traits whose members of a community deem socially significant. People from different races can be separated on the basis of physical appearance, completion, texture of the hair, structure of the body and facial formation. This matter of race has been an issue due to the occurrence of migration and interrealted marriage over long time of human history; so many genetic characteristics are evident all throughout the world. What are the common features of new social movements? Politics has always had the move, and things change, in the of the twenty-first century it is claimed to be the era of new politics in the making. It is characterized by the partial breakup of nations- states, global political scenarios, the creation of the new political dimensions like the European Union. There were mass mobilization and social movement In the western countries, in his book Social Movements 1768-2004, (Tilley, 2004) he mentioned social movements are made of three components. They organize public campaigns to declare the common claims in front of the target audiences. They ally with the political actions that ranges from the public meetings, processions, campaigns, rallies and planned associations. They represent themselves as reliable to the public and tries to assure them that they doing everything for the sake of good.
Saturday, April 11, 2020
Theory Observation Distinction Essay Is there a genuine distinction between observable and unobservable entities? Why does it matter? How, and why, might one distinguish between theoretical and observational statements in science? I have decided to tackle both these questions because they feed into and relate to one another. They emphasize different aspects of a prevalent debate, all aspects of which I wish to touch on. Whether the question of a distinction between observable vs unobservable entities is synonymous to the question of a distinction between theoretical vs non-theoretical statements is itself a matter of debate. Quine advocates semantic ascent, the shift in which the language we use to refer to the world becomes something we talk about in its own right. Semantic ascent is a shift from questions about objects to questions about words or statements. He says we should Ã¢â¬Ëdrop the talk of observation and talk instead of observation sentences, the sentences that are said to report observationsÃ¢â¬â¢ (The roots of Reference). So obviously Quine thinks the two questions are equivalent. They have often been treated as equivalent questions, or at least not distinguished too carefully. I agree with Van Fraassen that we should at least note and respect the differences between the two ways of talking about what might be the same issue, and not make the category mistake of talking about theoretical entities, just for clarities sake. At any event Paul M Churchland disagrees with Quine that the two debates are parallel , He says Ã¢â¬Å"we agree (Churchland and Van Fraassen) that the observable/unobservable distinction is entirely distinct from the nontheoretical/theoretical distinctionÃ¢â¬ . We will write a custom essay sample on Theory Observation Distinction specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Theory Observation Distinction specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Theory Observation Distinction specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer This disagreement / confusion as to the very terrain, layout of the questions of the debate, arises because there is the ordinary language question of how do we naturally apply the terms Ã¢â¬ËobservedÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËobservationÃ¢â¬â¢, as well as the question of whether a principled O/T distinction can or should be drawn; as Gerry FodorÃ¢â¬â¢s Granny says: Ã¢â¬Å"True there is an epistemologically important distinction, that itÃ¢â¬â¢s reasonable to call Ã¢â¬ËtheÃ¢â¬â¢ observation inference distinction, and that is theory relative. And, also true, it is this theory-relative distinction that scientists usually use the terms Ã¢â¬â¢observedÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËinferredÃ¢â¬â¢ to mark. But that is quite compatible with there being another distinction, which it is also reasonable to call Ã¢â¬ËtheÃ¢â¬â¢ observation /inference distinction which is also of central significance to the philosophy of science, and which is not theory relative. Ã¢â¬ It is this second principled O/T distinction that I will focus on as opposed to the ordinary language distinction, I do not think ordinary language arguments bear on the question of whether there is or should be a principled distinction. Although examining what inclines us one way or another in ordinary language usage may clarify factors that also influence us in an overall distinction, such as naturalness, entrenchment, flexibility and plasticity. After semantic ascent the question of whether there is an O/T dichotomy becomes one of whether all observation reports presuppose some theory. This slightly ignores the question of the ontological status of the entities, whether observed or unobserved, but this will come up when I tackle the subsidiary part of each question the Ã¢â¬Å"why make a distinction, for what purpose? Ã¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"why does it matter if a distinction presents itself? I think the strategy of semantic ascent is useful and justified since the debate takes place in at least two domains, the perceptual/cognitive (internal) and the observational/inferential (public)Ã¢â¬Å"The strategy of semantic ascent is that it carries the discussion into a domain where both parties are better agreed on the objects (viz. , words) and on the main terms connecting them. Words, or their inscriptions, unlike points, miles, classes and the rest, are tangible objects of the size so popular in the marketplace, where men of unlike conceptual schemes communicate at their best. The strategy is one of ascending to a common part of two fundamentally disparate conceptual schemes, the better to discuss the disparate foundations. No wonder it helps in philosophy. Ã¢â¬ Quine word and object. But it is a bit confusing and difficult to translate debates or points between the two, and certain debates are clearer at the ground level rather than the meta-level. There are three classes of arguments that bear on the T/O distinction: 1. Meaning holism arguments. Which tend to work against the distinction 2. Ordinary language arguments. Which tend to work for the distinction 3. Psychological arguments. Which can work for or against As well as a specific argument by Grover Maxwell from the continuity of observation with inference which works against the T/O distinction. There are two extant modes for making the theory observation distinction Ã¢â¬â FodorÃ¢â¬â¢s and Van FraassenÃ¢â¬â¢s. Fodor defends the distinction against the implication from cognitive science that perception is continuous with cognition. Van Fraassen defends the distinction against MaxwellÃ¢â¬â¢s challenge that it is impossible to draw the line between what is observable and what is only detectable in some more roundabout way. Fodor and Van Fraassen have different reasons for drawing a distinction, Fodor, to defend realism, Van Fraassen to attack realism, strangely enough. Fodor to defend realism against Kuhnian relativism, and Van Fraassen to defend constructive empiricism, a form of anti-realism, against incoherence, and so pit it against realism. As Andre Kukla notes Ã¢â¬Å"It is not surprising that a realist and an anti-realist should agree on something; but it is curious that van Fraassens and FodorÃ¢â¬â¢s defenses of the theory-observation distinction play diametrically opposite roles in their philosophical agendaÃ¢â¬â¢s. Ã¢â¬ Andre Kukla the theory observation distinction. But should we be driven by a philosophical agenda in debating a question? Or should we resolve the question and then decide on a position which accords with our answer? ShouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t we be neutral when we make philosophical decisions? Unfortunately in philosophy there is so little Ã¢â¬ËevidenceÃ¢â¬â¢ making up your mind is more a matter of achieving coherence, it is legitimate to allow justification to flow in all directions. The question of whether there is a T/O distinction is relevant to the debate between realists anti-realists and relativists in the following manner. So far as realists debate with anti-realists is concerned, the T/O distinction is optional for realists. They have everything to gain and nothing to lose by making it unravel. They have everything to gain, because the constructive empiricist position is incoherent without a T/O distinction. But so far as realists debate with relativists goes, realists have conversely everything to gain and nothing to lose by defending a distinction, they would defeat relativists. Kuhnain Relativism requires the lack of a theory neutral language with which to adjudicate our differences, so we get incommensurability, incommensurability leads to the irrationality of theory choice thus we get relativism. But realists cannot have an easy victory against both parties. I suggest that the realist denies the T/O distinction and so wins against the constructive empiricist. The lack of a T/O distinction does not entail relativism; a theory laden observation can still test a theory. To return to the question of whether we should be driven by a philosophical agenda in deciding a point, it must be remembered that we are concerning ourself with the question of whether there is a significant or principled O/T distinction. Its significance comes from its position within a larger debate. Frankly, everyone can admit there is some sort of distinction or difference between direct and indirect observation, the question really is how significant the difference is, whether a distinction can be drawn at a position significant enough to support any theory, the significance depends on the work it is made to do by larger theories. Paul M. churchland defines his scientific realism as a realism entirely in terms of his attitude towards the T/O distinction. He believes any attempt to draw the distinction, particularly Van FraassenÃ¢â¬â¢s, is arbitrary. By any skepticism Ã¢â¬Å"our observational ontology is rendered exactly as dubious as our non-observational ontologyÃ¢â¬ He is not an orthodox scientific realist; he is skeptical about the overall truth of our beliefs, the reference of scientific terms, and the convergence of theory towards truth. But he is skeptical about the success of all our theories, cognition at large, from a low to a high level not just scientific theories, and thus does not distinguish between the integrity of observables and the integrity of unobservables. He states that Ã¢â¬Å"global excellence of theory is the ultimate measure of truth and ontology at all levels of cognitionÃ¢â¬ . Although churchland has exactly the same attitude to observables and unobservables, a cautious skeptical attitude, relative to his peers he has a slightly pro attitude to unobsevables, and a negative attitude to observables. This pro Ã¢â¬â attitude to the unobservables of science makes him a realist and his slightly negative attitude to the observables of everyday life make him a scientific realist Ã¢â¬Å"the function of science, therefore, is to provide us with a superior and (in the long run) perhaps profoundly different conception of the world, even at the perceptual levelÃ¢â¬ . I agree with Churchland as to the theoretical character of perceptual judgments, I agree that Ã¢â¬Å"perception consists in the conceptual exploitation of the natural information contained in our sensations or sensory statesÃ¢â¬ . Having done part of a module on Ã¢â¬Å"the brain as a statisticianÃ¢â¬ I know that our perceptual judgments are statistical decision problems akin to gambling or any decision based on uncertain evidence. Because inputs are noisy Ã¢â¬â the external world and inefficient transduction creates noise- the question of whether a signal is present or not will reflect the relative probability that a signal is drawn from distribution A(noise only) or distribution B(signal + noise). Biasing factors are the probability of occurrence of a member of each category, information on which is drawn from memory. Perceptual decisions rely on perception and memory, or evidence and prior knowledge, prior knowledge being essentially a theory about the world. However I disagree with Paul Churchland as to the possibility of our being trained to make systematic perceptual judgments in terms of theories other than the common sense theory we Ã¢â¬Ëlearnt at our mothers kneeÃ¢â¬â¢ For one, I donÃ¢â¬â¢t think we learn our common sense theory rather it is built into our genetics. I do not think we are nearly as plastic as he makes out, on this point I go with Gerry Fodor, perception and cognition are not continuous, and perception can never make judgments in terms of grand theories which we can barely conceive. The boundary between what can be observed and what must be inferred is largely determined by fixed architectural features of an organisms sensory / perceptual psychologyÃ¢â¬ Gerry Fodor Observation Reconsidered. Paul Churchland directly contradicts this saying Ã¢â¬Å"our current modes of conceptual exploitation (perception) are rooted, in substantial measure, not in the nature of our perceptual environment, nor in the innate featu res of our psychology, but rather in the structure and content of our common languageÃ¢â¬ . How plastic the brain may be is an empirical point, and I think Gerry Fodor wins the debate with his analysis of the muller-lyer illusion. Fodor says the robustness of the muller lyer illusion attests to the imperviousness of perception by cognition. There are both perceptual plasiticities and implasticities. Kuhn was impressed by the plasticities, but it is time to dwell more on the implasticities. Ã¢â¬Å"To the best of my knowledge, all the standard perceptual illusions exhibit this curious refractory character :knowing they are illusions doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t make them go awayÃ¢â¬ However I donÃ¢â¬â¢t think Fodor is being entirely empirically accurate. Some illusions such as the concave Ã¢â¬â convex illusion, in which heavily shaded circles appear as concave when the shadow is at the top of the circle, and convex when the shadow is at the bottom of the circle, which occurs because we have a strong prior belief / prior assumption that light falls from above, can be reversed or at least nullified if you really try. The famous duck rabbit can definitely be flipped at will. And the old hag, young girl illusion, personally I can never see the old hag unless it is explained to e, then I can. But anyway Fodor makes his point, we cannot always see just what we want to see or think we should see. I agree with Gerry Fodor that perception is fairly modular, and is not (probably) affected (much) by conscious explicit knowledge. Certainly the muller lyer illusion is fairly robust And I think far too much is made of the duck rabbit illusion Ã¢â¬â Kuhn says Ã¢â¬Å"it is as elementary prototypes for these transformations of the scientists wo rld view that the familiar demonstrations of a switch in gestalt prove so suggestiveÃ¢â¬ . But I do not think they are anything more than just that Ã¢â¬â suggestive Ã¢â¬â because a scientist, does not, cannot form an image or representation of quarks and leptons in any way analogous to a duck or a rabbit, so this image cannot Ã¢â¬ËflipÃ¢â¬â¢. Paul Churchland seems to think we can form such images, but personally I cannot. I see the western sky redden as the sun sets not Ã¢â¬Å"the wavelength distribution of incoming solar radiation shift towards the longer wavelengthsÃ¢â¬ . However I would say our inability to alter our perception does not damage churchlandÃ¢â¬â¢s essential point which was that perception relies on theory, implicit theory. A very entrenched embedded theory, but theory all the same. Churchland thinks the distinction between the theoretical and the non-theoretical is just a distinction between freshly minted theory and thoroughly thumb-worn theory whose Ã¢â¬Ëcultural assimilation is completeÃ¢â¬â¢. I think some Ã¢â¬Ëthumb-worn theoryÃ¢â¬â¢ is actually entrenched in our biology. But maybe individual differences come into play here, maybe some people are more plastic than others, or innately sensitive to some aspects of reality than others, maybe our biology is not universal. Paul Churchland says that the person with perfect pitch is not a physiological freak but a practiced observer. But I think it most likely that there is something unique about them. Maybe I am closed minded in the sort of visualization Churchland encourages, maybe thatÃ¢â¬â¢s just me, I had no luck with seeing in the fourth dimension even after reading Ã¢â¬ËFlatlandÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬Ëspeculations on the fourth dimensionÃ¢â¬â¢ whereas other people (the authors) claim to have, still IÃ¢â¬â¢m a bit skeptical. Paul ChurlandÃ¢â¬â¢s thought experiments where he gets us to imagine various other beings, with radically different physiology, beings that can visually see infra-red heat for example, raises the idea of the possibility of other sensory modalities. And although we cannot communicate with them, so they are not part of our epistemic community, there are animals on our planet who presumably sense different things to us, such as bats and dolphins. Van Fraassen insists that is Ã¢â¬ËobservableÃ¢â¬â¢ must be observable to us unassisted, and as we currently are, an anthropocentric conception; Ã¢â¬Å"the limitations to which the Ã¢â¬ËableÃ¢â¬â¢ in observable refers are our limitations qua human beings. Ã¢â¬ It could be argued that Van Fraassens anthropocentric conception of the observable is not just anthropocentric, but parochial. Alternatively it could be argued that van fraassen draws the line arbitrarily: according to Van Fraassen we can observe planets using a telescope, but we cannot observe viruses using a microscope, because planets are something we could observe without any augmentation of the senses, where we close enough to them, and indeed some of them we can observe from earth, our natural position, (venus) whereas under normal conditions viruses cannot be seen. I do not agree with this objection to Van Fraassen, I think where he draws the line is one natural place to draw it if it has to be drawn, but it is just that I donÃ¢â¬â¢t agree with him that the drawing of the line here is very significant. I am a realist and I believe unobservables are generally as real as observables. From his drawing of the line, van Fraassen only believes in observables. Fodor lightly passes over the fact that Ã¢â¬Å"perceptual analyses are undetermined by sensory arraysÃ¢â¬ and are only resolved by Bayesian reasoning from previous evidence / experience, and that Ã¢â¬Å"the appeal to background theory is inherent to the process of perceptual analysisÃ¢â¬ Fodor Observaiton reconsidered. I think this fact is indisputable, and it is in this respect that perception and cognition are similar as Paul churchland maintains, both are theories and Ã¢â¬Å"global excellence of theory is the ultimate measure of truth and ontology at all levels of cognitionÃ¢â¬ . The impossibility of our being trained to make systematic perceptual judgments in terms of theories other that the common sense theory we Ã¢â¬Ëlearnt at our mothers kneeÃ¢â¬â¢, the implasticity of actual human perception, is irrelevant in drawing a theory observation distinction, both perception and cognition are theory dependent. But Granted as Fodor points out against Kuhn scientific knowledge doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t actually percolate down to affect the perceptual. Kuhnian perceptual theory loading does not occur. There is some natural barrier. Is this barrier the location of the O/T distinction? I think it probably is if there is one. It is significant, but not significant for the anti-realist, it does not decide our ontology. It is significant in the realists fight with relativism since observations are theory laden, but are not necessarily laden with the high level theories that they must adjudicate between. So perceptions are laden with perceptual theory, but not laden with quantum theory. Fodor makes the O/T distinction in such a way that it is significant for realists against relativism, but not significant for anti-realists. Ã¢â¬Å"Fodor isnÃ¢â¬â¢t looking for a notion of observationality that underwrites our granting epistemic privilege to observation statements. HeÃ¢â¬â¢s looking for a notion that will ward off the incommensurability arguments. And for that purpose anything that produces consensus will doÃ¢â¬ Andre Kukla The theory observation distinction. Now to explicitly tackle the questions, Ã¢â¬Å"why make a distinction, for what purpose? Ã¢â¬ or Ã¢â¬Å"why does it matter if a distinction does or does not present itself? Ã¢â¬ . I have already touched on the answer to these questions when outlining the role of the distinction (or lack of) in larger debates between anti-realists, and relativists. The question of the O/T distinction has epistemological significance; it concerns the epistemic bearing of observational evidence on theories it is used to evaluate. This is part of the debate between realists and relativists. The relativists holding that observation is an inadequate basis for choosing between rival theories, the realists claiming it is an adequate basis, or there is at least something which is an adequate basis. Observational evidence also plays important and philosophically interesting roles in other areas including scientific discovery and the application of scientific theories to practical problems. But we will concentrate on theory testing. It seems that if all observations are theory laden then there is no objective bedrock against which to test and justify theory. The classic or common view of science is that scientific knowledge is derived from the Ã¢â¬ËfactsÃ¢â¬â¢ or observations. Two schools of thought that involve attempts to formalize this common view of science are the empiricists and the positivists. An extreme interpretation of the claim that science is derived from the facts implies that the facts must first be established, and subsequently a theory built to fit them. This is the baconian method building a case from the ground up. This is not how science actually proceeds. Ã¢â¬Å"our search for relevant facts needs to be guided by our current state of knowledge, which tells us for example that measuring the ozone concentration at various locations in the atmosphere yields relevant facts whereas measuring the average hair length of the youths in Sydney does notÃ¢â¬ A F chalmers What is this thing called Science?. But the fact that science is guided by paradigms does not support kuhnian relativism. Kuhnian relativism can only be established if incommensurability is, that is if high level theory-loading of observation were established. As I have already argued along with Fodor, observation may be loaded with low level perceptual theory but not with high level conscious and elaborate theory. Proponents of competing theories often produce impressively similar observational data, this indicates perceptual theory loading is not that great. If science were blinded by paradigms that would be a different matter. Against semantic theory loading; Often observations reported non-linguistically, pictorially with tables of numbers etc. Late 20th century philosophers may have exaggerated the influence of semantic loading because they thought of theory testing in terms of inferential relations between observational and theoretical sentences. Against Salience or attentional loading scientists under different paradigms attend to different things. Yes, but doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t always happen. And scientists may appreciate the significance of data that is brought to their attention that had not been noticed. Attentional loading is not inevitable and not irredeemable. So observation is and adequate basis for adjudicating between theories (unless the theories are underdetermined by data). In conclusion I would say there is no absolute T/O distinction, but there is enough of a difference, enough bottom up flow of justification, to defeat relativism. A. F. chalmers: what is this thing called science? Paul M Churchland: Scientific realism and the plasticity of the mind Paul M churchland: The ontological status of obsservables: In praise of superempirical virtues Gerry Fodor: observation reconsidered Andre Kukla: the theory observation distinction W. V. O Quine: Word and Object Bas Van Fraassen: the scientific image
Tuesday, March 10, 2020
Global Operations Plan-World Fashion-China Executive SummaryTeam B is an enthusiastic organization consisting of six of the industry's brightest individuals. We are comprised of technological experts, business professionals, and fashion industry experts. Together, we have more than 100 years of experience in the fashion and retail industry.Our goal is to offer our Chinese consumers an alternative method for purchasing the latest fashions. We take ordinary catalogue shopping to a new level by offering a virtual online catalogue. Our customers are able to mix and match any apparel and accessory in the catalogue and see how it would look like on a virtual model with a similar body shape as the customer. No longer will customers need to take a chance on purchasing various garments and accessories just to find out they are not to their liking.Much research has been conducted to ensure that Team B enters the Chinese market successfully. A joint venture with one of China's most successful and prestigious retailers will allow Team B to enter China; while reducing any political or economic risks.Ã¤ ¸ Ã¥âº ½Ã§Å" Ã¤ » ½Ã¤ º ºÃ¥ â¡GDPÃ¥Ëâ Ã¥ ¸Æ' Chinese province-level...Team B will become well recognized in China and with the Chinese government with time and the company will be able to establish itself more independently. This plan will allow Team B to build a rapport with both the great people of China and the government.Team B's product will be offered throughout China to offer the fashion-conscientious customer a wide variety of today's latest fashions from Asia, Europe, and North America. As China continues to prosper and grow, Team B's product will be able to offer its customers; elegance and appropriate business attire that will make them stand out at affordable prices.Mission StatementMission statement: To be our customer's first choice in retail clothing by offering them the latest designs from Asia, Europe, and North America...
Saturday, February 22, 2020
E-Business security in your organisation Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words
E-Business security in your organisation - Essay Example It has over 3 million accounts, a quarter of which are active, and has total assets of $61 million (e-gold 4). For a decade-long company, it has not grown much compared to the largest online payment system, Paypal, which claims to do $60 million worth of transactions daily. e-gold transactions are 100 percent backed by metal deposits and are not reversible, which means that unlike credit card transactions, once a transaction is made there is no possibility that it can be cancelled. e-gold can be used to pay for transactions over other merchant websites and makes its money from maintenance fees that range up to 1 percent of the total transaction amount. Based on personal experience, the website is easy to use, getting an account is fast, and the fees are reasonable. The website (www.e-gold.com) is open 24/7 so account holders can transact anytime and anywhere. Users avail of e-gold for several types of transactions. They can have funds transferred to their e-gold account, and then have it transferred to a bank account in any currency using a reliable third party site like OmniPay or The Gold Shop. A user does this by simply logging on to a personal e-gold account, "spend" the desired amount (say, $1,000 worth of e-gold) into OmniPay, take note of the spend batch number issued for the transaction, log out of e-gold, log in to OmniPay, and fill up a bank transfer form with instructions to OmniPay to transfer the $1,000 that was "spent" or sold less fees to any bank account anywhere in the world. The funds take anywhere from two to five days to reach the bank account. Users normally tested the system by transferring small amounts, and when it worked they began moving bigger amounts of money. When someone anywhere in the world wants to pay an e-gold account holder, they give instructions to pay via e-gold by buying the e-currency and "spending" the amount to the user's account. The user can check his or her e-gold account from anywhere, even from a hot spot on a beach resort in the French Riviera, so they will know whether the payments have gone through or the funds have been transferred to the specified bank account. The user can then do transactions from there. This writer has been using e-gold for over a year now, and is happy with the service. This is the reason why this analysis on e-business security was done on this company, which has been only too happy to oblige and share information with me for this paper. Choosing the Standard One problem with selecting a standard to evaluate the e-business security issues of a merchant website is that there are too many standards to choose from. The main reason is simple: the chosen standard becomes a cash flow machine for the firm that develops it. There are several companies like Verisign, Oracle, IBM, and a host of other for-profit and not-for-profit institutions known by their acronyms: SEI, IETF, NIST, W3C, SAI, ISACA. The list is seemingly endless. The Europe-based International Organization of Standards is known for its ISO standards, the more famous of which are the ISO 9000 series used by companies to document their total quality management programs (Arnold 15). The letters ISO/IEC prefix its standards, which are adopted in both the U.S. and Europe. The British Standards Institute (BSI) is a similar organization that has several years of experience developing working standards for many industries. For these